Introduction of paper: Artificial black hole on circuit.
In this article, I will explain the results of the reproduction of Hawking radiation1* using a quantum electronic circuit that was recently published. In this paper, I will explain the results of the reproduction of Hawking radiation using a quantum electronic circuit, which uses a Josephson device to create a pseudo-Schwarzschild radius2* using a potential on the circuit to create a situation where photons cannot escape from the potential, and the electromagnetic waves emitted from the potential reproduce Hawking radiation.
An artificial black hole can be reproduced on a circuit.
The artificial black hole can be reproduced on the circuit, and the Hawking radiation can be reproduced in the tunnel.
However, this has not been actually observed, and there are various models of black holes.
The Josephson device is used in the circuit shown in Fig. 1, so that the electric field potential that captures a photon reproduces the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole. In this way, we can reproduce the model where the incident light is reflected twice inside the black hole and then emitted outside as Hawking radiation.
Figure 1: Circuit for reproducing a black hole. The area enclosed by the square is repeated.
When the circuit shown in Figure 1 is connected, because of the phase of the Josephson device, an electric field appears that traps photons so that they cannot escape in the middle of the circuit. This circuit reduces the photon speed to 1/100 of its original speed. In this circuit, the photon cannot exit the electric field unless it exceeds the speed limit within the circuit. Therefore, the only way to escape this electric field is through the tunneling effect. Photons are reflected in the electric field, and when they come out, they are in a different state than when they entered. Thus, it was confirmed that the larger the group velocity of the photons, the higher the Hawking temperature (the temperature of Hawking radiation) becomes. However, we have not yet been able to reproduce this to the point where it is inversely proportional to volume.
There are still many mysteries about black holes, and Hawking radiation has not been observed because the temperature is too low. The fact that only the antiparticles in Hawking radiation are taken up by the Schwarzschild radius and evaporate the black hole is only true because it is consistent with the entropy-increasing law, and it may be that the same amount of particles are actually absorbed by the black hole. This may be derived from CP symmetry breaking, but I don't know yet because I don't know much about elementary particles3*. Furthermore, various theories have been proposed for the structure of black holes, as shown in Figure 2. (1) a black hole with a conventional singularity, (2) a black hole with no interior in the de jitter picture, and (3) a model in which the black hole is filled with unobservable dense particles . The results in this paper reproduce those in the (1) and (3) pictures. However, there are still many issues to be addressed in this research, and further development is expected.
Figure 2: Model of a black hole. (1) A typical black hole. The singularity is at the center. (2) A de jitter black hole. A black hole has no internal structure. (3) A model in which an ultra-dense object is the interior of a black hole.
1* A general term for the synchrotron radiation and particles that are said to be emitted from a black hole. It is considered hopeless to observe because it is only about a few millikelvin.
2* The radius at which space is so distorted that even light cannot escape, and gravity is so great. In general relativity, time stops here.
3* Superstring theory seems to be able to explain this.